Religio: Revue pro religionistiku 20/2, 2012

See below for the English translation of the table of contents with English summaries.

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Obsah (v původních jazycích) / Table of contents (in original languages)

Téma: „Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion“

William W. McCorkle Jr. – Dimitris Xygalatas, Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion: Introduction

Luther H. Martin, The Future of the Past: The History of Religions and Cognitive Historiography

Donald Wiebe, It’s Never Been Better: Comments on the Current State of the Science of Religion

Studie

Daniel Boušek, Motiv abrogace Mojžíšova zákona ve středověké polemice islámu s judaismem

David Zbíral, Případ nekonfesní religiozity ve středověké Evropě: Bompietro z Boloně

Pavel Šindelář, Koncept náboženství v moderní čínské společnosti a jeho vědecká reflexe

Rozhledy

Aleš Chalupa, Vznik a vývoj konceptu magie v římském světě

Zprávy

Milan Kováč, Zomrel zakladateľ slovenskej religionistiky Ján Komorovský (2. jún 1924 až 20. marec 2012)

Dušan Lužný, Projekt „Pronásledování, exkluze a tolerance netradičních náboženských menšin – případ českého buddhismu a Církve sjednocení před a po roce 1989“

Recenze

Alena Hanzová, Kultická reforma v politických službách judského vazalského státu v 8. a 7. století př. Kr. (Pavel Čech)

Kodžiki: Kronika dávného Japonska (Zuzana Kubovčáková)

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Západní esoterické tradice (Marek Adamík)

Zdeněk R. Nešpor, Příliš slábi ve víře: Česká ne/religiozita v evropském kontextu (Roman Vido)

Jan Váně, Komunita jako nová naděje? Náboženské (ne)institucionalizované komunity z pohledu sociologie náboženství (Vojtěch Kaše)

Table of contents (English translation) with English summaries

Special Feature: “Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion”

William W. McCorkle Jr. – Dimitris Xygalatas, Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion: Introduction

The study of religion is by its nature and by its history multi-disciplinary, incorporating diverse research paradigms ranging from historiography to experimental approaches and from scientific positivism to postmodern reflection. At a conference on the Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion (Brno, March 1-3, 2012), the keynote speakers provided an assessment of the field of religious studies. While they agreed on the relevance of traditional methods (in particular those coming from history and anthropology) for the study of religion, the speakers also stressed the contribution of new research paradigms such as cognitive, evolutionary, and experimental approaches, which have rejuvenated the discipline by calling attention to a much neglected but certainly fundamental aspect of human culture (the mind) and bringing methodological rigour that is often lacking in the humanities. The Laboratory for the Experimental Research of Religion in Brno, who hosted this conference, is the product of these developments

Keywords: religious studies; paradigms; conference Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion; LEVYNA.

Luther H. Martin, The Future of the Past: The History of Religions and Cognitive Historiography

The proposal for a scientific study of religions (Religionswissenschaft) was born of the scientific impulse that swept Europe from the mid-nineteenth century and that gave birth to the study of history itself as a scientific and autonomous discipline. Increasingly, however, historians of religion abandoned historical methods altogether and the study of religion became associated with an ahistorical approach in which “history of religions” became a synonym for assembling a phenomenological corpus of truncated and decontextualized cultural data, the temporality of which was disregarded in favor of claims to their being manifestations of a sui generis sacrality. A history of religions, informed by the insights of the new cognitive sciences, can draw upon well-founded theory that can supplement and provide correctives to traditional historiographical tools. Nevertheless, the weight of the 150 history of the study of religion suggests that the future of the study of religion will inevitably differ little from that of its past.

Keywords: Religionswissenschaft; scientific study of religion; historiography; historiographical theory; evolutionary theory; cognitive science; cognitive historiography.

Donald Wiebe, It’s Never Been Better: Comments on the Current State of the Science of Religion

I have argued in the past that there has been a massive failure of nerve in the study of religion in the context of the modern research university; that it failed to live up to the scientific objectives enunciated for the field in late nineteenth-century European academic communities. The “comments” here on the current state of the science (or sciences) of religion constitute, in part, a kind of informal critical history of the field known as “Religious Studies.” I suggest here that the overall development of the field might actually indicate a positive trajectory since its inception in late nineteenth-century Europe. This essay, therefore, may mitigate somewhat my recent claim (with L. H. Martin) that it is highly unlikely that the scientific study of religion will actually some day come to dominance in religious studies departments in our modern universities.

Keywords: theology; religious studies; meaning; ideology; postmodernism; science; reductionism; funding; research universities.

Articles

Daniel Boušek, The Motif of the Abrogation of the Mosaic Law in Medieval Islamic Polemic with Judaism

The aim of the present study is to outline the Muslim attitude to the abrogation of the Mosaic law as portrayed in the works of four leading medieval Muslim scholars, al-Bāqillānī, Ibn Ḥazm, Samawʾal al-Maghribī, and al-Qarāfī. The Jews rejected abrogation (naskh) and any suggestion of a new dispensation, be it through Jesus or Muhammad, on the basis of the argument of God’s omniscience and the immutability of His decree, which is not liable to sudden change. The notion of a new dispensation is based on such a sudden change (badā’) in God’s will, and thus contradicts the idea of God’s omniscience. The contra arguments of Muslim authors revolve around the premise that precepts of the Mosaic law are commands to perform certain acts for a definite period, and when that defined period has passed, the command may turn into its opposite. To prove this they put forward arguments based on both the Hebrew Bible and rational grounds.

It is clear from the proposed arguments for abrogation and change in divine will that they are based on a standard set of arguments from an old polemical tradition going back to Jewish scholars such as al-Qirqisānī and especially Sa‛adya Ga’on. The latter responded to arguments advanced by Ḥīwī al-Balkhī, a Jewish sceptic, who lived in the second half of the ninth century CE and allegedly wrote a polemical work in rhyme against the Hebrew Bible, listing 200 questions and problematic passages. His arguments for abrogation and change in divine will mostly correspond to those introduced by the studied Muslim authors.

The need to respond to Ibn Ḥazm’s and Samaw’al al-Maghribī’s arguments was felt even several centuries later, as we can infer from the works of two Jewish authors from the 13th century, Saʽd ibn Kammūna and Abraham ibn Adret. Their direct response contains the old stock of polemical themes shared by Jewish, Christian, and Muslim authors living in Islamic countries.

Keywords: abrogation of the Mosaic law; medieval Islamic polemics with Judaism; al-Bāqillānī; Ibn Ḥazm; Samaw’al al-Maghribī; al-Qarāfī.

David Zbíral, A Case of Non-Confessional Religiosity in Medieval Europe: Bompietro of Bologna

In this article, I analyze the religiosity of Bompietro of Bologna as reported in the register of the inquisition of Bologna, 1291-1310. I attempt to show that Bompietro’s religiosity was above all practical; its doctrinal content seems to be scarce, and it was not focused on support of any church (Roman or Cathar). Bompietro’s case reveals a non-confessional type of religiosity, one still underrepresented in the image of medieval Christianity. This case also encourages wider reflection on the relations between beliefs, practices and membership. Far from having direct causal links, these relations can sometimes prove quite intricate.

Keywords: Bompietro of Bologna; inquisition; practical religiosity; non-confessional religiosity; concept of religion; concept of membership; heresy and orthodoxy; Catharism.

Pavel Šindelář, The Concept of Religion in Modern Chinese Society and Its Scientific Reflection

When analyzing contemporary Chinese religious life and religious policy of the Chinese state, the starting point should be to understand the context in which the term religion was introduced in China and to recognize the tools that the Chinese state has been using for handling religious expressions in society. These issues are rooted in the long history of the relationship between religion and the state in China; however, they are perceived through modern terminological and theoretical discourse. In fact, it is modern European science (humanities) that has defined the historical role, function, and form of religion since the late 19th century. With extensive help from the Chinese intellectual elite, the humanities have also interpreted various manifestations of religion in modern as well as in traditional Chinese society. Indeed, science, both domestic Chinese and Western, has played an important role in the introduction of the theoretical concept of religion into Chinese society and its subsequent use for specific political goals.

This paper focuses on the origins of the concept of religion in the Chinese reality; it traces these origins in modern European thought and, in particular, the cultural and structural patterns that are unfamiliar to traditional (pre-modern) Chinese culture and society. It also attempts to outline problems that arise from the penetration and acculturation of the concept of religion into Chinese society and describes how these problems are reflected in the academic environment, especially in the Euro-American area.

Keywords: China; Chinese society; modernity; concept of religion; zōngjiào; ethnocentrism; diffused religion.

Commentaries and Discussions

Aleš Chalupa, The Origin and Evolution of the Category of Magic in the Roman World

This article maps the process which lead to the reception and acculturation of the reflected category of magic by the Romans. This process commenced at the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, at a time of increasingly intense contact between the Roman world and neighboring cultures, and ended with the establishment of the Roman Empire at the end of the 1st century BCE. It is argued here that the Romans took over this category from the Greeks and started to use it, after some adaptations, as a contrasting and antithetical category to Romanitas (Romanness) helping to define the acceptability of certain behaviors and ideas deemed to represent the core of civilizing efforts of (mainly) Roman political and cultural elites.

Keywords: magic; definition of magic; polis religion; magos; superstitio; Romanness.

News

Milan Kováč, The Founder of the Slovak Study of Religions, Ján Komorovský (2 June 1924 – 20 March 2012), Died

Dušan Lužný, Project “Persecution, Exclusion, and Toleration of Non-Traditional Religious Minoroties – the Case of Czech Buddhism and the Unification Church Before and After 1989”

Reviews

Alena Hanzová, Kultická reforma v politických službách judského vazalského státu v 8. a 7. století př. Kr. (Pavel Čech)

Kodžiki: Kronika dávného Japonska (Zuzana Kubovčáková)

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Západní esoterické tradice (Marek Adamík)

Zdeněk R. Nešpor, Příliš slábi ve víře: Česká ne/religiozita v evropském kontextu (Roman Vido)

Jan Váně, Komunita jako nová naděje? Náboženské (ne)institucionalizované komunity z pohledu sociologie náboženství (Vojtěch Kaše)

Dekorativní ornament

Česká společnost
pro religionistiku

je občanské sdružení, které se zabývá podporou religionistiky – vědeckého studia náboženství.

Aktuality

4. 6. 2017

Nové číslo časopisu Religio

Vyšlo nové číslo časopisu Religio 2/2016 (úplný text čísla).

20. 2. 2017

Zpráva o činnosti

Na stránce Zprávy byla zveřejněna zpráva o činnosti v roce 2016.

16. 2. 2015

Zápis z valného shromáždění ČSR

Na stránce Zápisy byl zveřejněn zápis z valného shromáždění ČSR, konaného v Brně 9. února 2015.

10. 6. 2013

Religio volně dostupné na internetu

Všechny ročníky časopisu Religio od jeho vzniku v roce 1993 až do současnosti byly na základě rozhodnutí výboru ČSR volně zpřístupněny na internetu v Digitální knihovně FF MU. Věříme, že toto rozšíření distribuce časopisu přispěje k tomu, aby byly jednotlivé příspěvky lépe dohledatelné a ještě lépe sloužily badatelům, studentům i dalším zájemcům. Časopis nadále vychází primárně v tištěné podobě.

2. 11. 2011

Religio v databázi Scopus

Hodnoticí komise (Content Selection & Advisory Board) schválila začlenění časopisu Religio: Revue pro religionistiku do prestižní citační databáze Scopus nakladatelství Elsevier. Hodnocení časopisu bylo velmi pozitivní: „This is a strong journal publishing significant articles and with an impressive review and editorial policy.“

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